Cic edizioni internazionali
Functional Neurology

Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation

Article, 17 - 28
Tag this article
Abstract
Full text HTML Full text PDF
During the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge.
In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two
months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the
event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain.
There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.

Vol. XXXIII (No. 1) 2018 January/March

  1. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: the therapeutic window is larger but still “time is brain»
    Zivelonghi C., Tamburin S.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.005
  2. Pharmacological differences and clinical implications of various botulinum toxin preparations: a critical appraisal
    Ferrari A., Manca M., Tugnoli V., Alberto L.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.007
  3. Multicentre registry of brain-injured patients with disorder of consciousness: rationale and preliminary data
    Pascarella A., Fiorenza S., Masotta O., Tibollo V., Vella D., Nardone A. M., Rossi M., Volanti P., Madonia F., Castronovo G., De Cicco D., Guarnaschelli C., Achilli M.P., Chiapparino C., Angelillo M.T., Tommasi M.A., Pisano F., Grioni G., Vezzadini G., Ferriero G., Salvaderi S., Bellazzi R., Estraneo A.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.019
  4. Apathy in Parkinson’s disease: differences between caregiver’s report and self-evaluation
    Valentino V., Iavarone A., Amboni M., Moschiano F., Picillo M., Petretta V., Cicarelli G.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.031
  5. Management of spasticity with onabotulinumtoxinA: practical guidance based on the italian real-life post-stroke spasticity survey
    Sandrini G., Baricich A., Cisari C., Paolucci S., Smania N., Picelli A.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.037
  6. A role for accelerometry in the differential diagnosis of tremor syndromes
    Bove F., Di Lazzaro G., Mulas D., Cocciolillo F., Di Giuda D., Bentivoglio A.R.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.045
  7. Effectiveness of a digital platform for sharing knowledge on headache management: a two-year experience
    Raieli V., Correnti E., Sandullo A., Romano M., Marchese F., Loiacono C., Brighina F.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.051
  8. If you want to understand what it really means to live with cluster headache, imagine... fostering empathy through European patients’ own stories of their experiences
    Rossi P., Little P., De La Torre E.R., Palmaro A.
    doi: 10.11138/FNeur/2018.33.1.057
Last Viewed articles: la lista degli ultimi x visitati.
  1. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation
    Swaab D.F., Garcia-Falgueras A.
credits